NFkB and Nrf2 are intracellular signaling molecules that control/moderate gene expression and are involved in response to inflammation and cellular stress.
APPA is a patented fixed combination of two synthetically produced, synergistic, secondary metabolites of plant origin which exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through modulation of NFkB and Nrf2 pathways. Related to innate immune responses, APPA inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).
In animal testing APPA has demonstrated repeated and significant pain relief from OA, improved functionality and slowing of cartilage destruction, something which no approved drug has demonstrated.
Currently in Phase I, early assessment of disease modification will be made at Phase II.