Other Indications

AKL4 has been shown to synergistically inhibit Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) production. NETs are fibrous networks of chromatin and tissue damaging neutrophil granular enzymes which protrude from the membrane of activated neutrophils. NETs are found in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Based this in-vitro research, and on human anecdotal reports, there is evidence to support the use of AKL4 in other indications, some of which have particularly high value.

Alzheimer’s Disease

AKL4 is being considered for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease where there is an increasing view that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of the disease.

Other Diseases

Other diseases linked to inflammation are also being investigated, including rheumatoid arthritis:
Neutrophils play a key role in tissue damage seen in RA and a number of other autoimmune diseases. APPA has been shown to moderate several of these functions so has the potential to be a future treatment for RA.


In-vitro work is currently underway investigating AKL4’s role in the treament of Scleroderma, a rare connective tissue disease.